Basic Chemistry

Your prompt is:
The start of life is on Earth is a complex subject, full of disagreements and controversy. The most commonly accepted theory is that certain molecules became linked together in ancient oceans, creating the building blocks of life. Explain how molecules and atoms may become linked to each other. Your answer should include ionic bonding, cations, anions, covalent bonding, protons, electrons, hydrogen bonding, and electronegativity. Further, water can become acidic or basic depending on the solutes place in it. Most organisms are primarily composed of water. How, exactly, would altering the pH in a solution affect a living organism and how do organisms prevent large pH fluctuations? Your answer should include hydrogen ions, hydroxide ions, pH, weak acids, strong acids, and buffers.
(Please also use your own words too)
At least one in text citations is provided per paragraph in APA format (Author Last Name, Year) immediately after the first reference is made.
1. In a paragraph describe the mass and charge of electrons, protons, and neutrons. Provide an example.
2. Describe the contents of the nucleus, including its charge. Also, describe the electron cloud including how to determine orbital levels and what they are in a paragraph. The charge of the electron cloud should be noted. Use an example to illustrate the point.
3. A paragraph to define covalent bonding, electronegativity, and the octet rule. Describe how differences in electronegativity between two atoms in a molecule can result in polar covalent bonding. Polar covalent bonding should also be defined. Then an example to illustrate one or more of these concepts.
4. Define an ion, a cation, and an anion. Then describe the relationship between cations and anions. Also, define ionic bonding. Then provide an example of ionic bonding.
5. Describe the chemical structure of water, including how it is polar covalent and how it can form Hydrogen bonds with other water molecules. Define Hydron bonding. At least 4 properties of water should be described. Examples should be given of the 4 properties of water described.
6. Acids and bases should be defined in relationship to Hydrogen ions. The pH scale should be discussed and please describe how to convert the Hydrogen ion concentration in moles to pH. Weak acids/bases should be defined as are strong acids/bases. Examples of strong and weak acids and bases should be provided.
7. Buffers need to be defined in their relationship to Hydrogen and Hydroxide ions. The function of buffers in the cell needs to be described, indicating why they are important. An example of a buffered reaction too.


Approximately 250 words