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Middle Range therory.
by Liz Acosta Ojeda – Friday, January 13, 2023, 1:40 PM
Internal and External Criticism that is Used to Evaluate Middle-Range Theories
Both internal and external criticism is crucial in middle-range theories. They provide comprehensive information concerning the theories’ logical soundness and utility in nursing practice (Dugin, 2018). Evaluation of middle-range theories is an ongoing process that involves reviewing and updating the theories as new research and clinical evidence emerge. Internal criticism involves the evaluation of the coherence, empirical support, and logical consistency within a theory. It includes an assessment of the specificity and clarity of the theory’s concept and propositions. In addition, internal criticism may include the logical connections between the concept and propositions of the theory. External criticism is the assessment of the relevance, usefulness, and applicability of a theory in the real world (Liehr & Smith, 2017). It involves examining the ability of the theory to guide nursing practice, generates testable hypotheses and predictions, and be integrated with research and other theories.
The purpose of internal criticism is to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the theory and to identify any inconsistencies that could detriment the applicability of the theory (Dugin, 2018). This process is essential for the development of sound and valid nursing theories and the advancement of the nursing profession. A comprehensive literature review is necessary to facilitate the assessment. The review would include a comprehensive analysis of the theory’s literature base, structure, and core assumptions (Liehr & Smith, 2017). In addition, the objectives and stated goals of the theory are analyzed. Once the primary elements have been identified, a more detailed analysis of the theory’s internal structure and content is undertaken.
The important component of internal criticism is the assessment of internal validity and logical consistency of the theory. It involves assessing the ability of the theory to explain the relationship between concepts and to make predictions about a phenomenon. A theory that cannot explain the association between concepts or produce legible predictions must be replaced or revised. Internal consistency can also be used to evaluate the scope of a theory (Liehr & Smith, 2017). This involves examining various phenomena that theory can explain and the extent to which the explanation is valid. Another important purpose of internal criticism is that it helps evaluate the usefulness of a theory in nursing and the extent to which it can assist in developing evidence-based practice.
On the other hand, external criticism is an assessment of a theory from an evidence-based perspective. The process is majorly to identify flaws in the theory that may demand additional refinement of development (Dugin, 2018). In addition, the process helps identify possible areas of the application of the theory in other disciplines. This is a powerful tool for assessing middle-range theories in nursing. It helps researchers to understand the flaws in theories which facilitates improvement.
Dugin, E. (2018). Middle range theories in the research of information and communication media systems. World of Media. Journal of Russian Media and Journalism Studies, (1), 55-70.
Liehr, P., & Smith, M. J. (2017). Middle Range Theory: a perspective on development and use. Advances in Nursing Science, 40(1), 51-63.


Approximately 250 words